Apple Rootstocks

Budagovsky 118

(B 118)

A vigorous, semi-dwarf rootstock that produces trees roughly the same size as those grown on EMLA 111 roots. B 118 is from the same Russian program that created Budagovsky 9
(B 9). It is extremely cold hardy, well anchored, and works with most soils.

Budagovsky 9

(B 9)

A cross between M 8 and Red Standard, a hardy rootstock of Russian origin. A full dwarf rootstock producing a tree with the same vigor as M 9. Requires staking or other support to keep anchored. Extremely cold hardy and resistant to collar rot. Mildly resistant to powdery mildew and scab, developed at the Michuinsk College of Agriculture in Russia.

EMLA 106

This rootstock produces a tree about half to two-thirds the size of a standard tree. It does not sucker and the rootstock is resistant to wooly aphid. EMLA 106 has been planted intensively in the East and West and is an excellent producer. It should be planted on well-drained soil as it is susceptible to crown rot.

EMLA 111

EMLA 111 produces a tree about two-thirds the size of a standard tree. Vigorous scion varieties and better soils may grow to three-quarter size or larger. EMLA 111 is a good producing rootstock, is well anchored and tolerant of drought conditions. It is widely adapted to most soil conditions.


EMLA 26 is considered to be smaller than a half size tree. It is about 40 to 45 percent of a standard tree, needs some support in early years, but could be self-supporting in later years. EMLA 26 is very early and heavy bearing. This rootstock is very adaptable for close plantings and double rows.


A tree on this rootstock will be 50 to 60 percent smaller than a standard tree. Trees on this clone are the most popular of all the rootstock we grow. EMLA 7 does well on most soils. Some support may be needed in early years. EMLA 7 is very winter hardy. It is susceptible to suckering. EMLA 7 is extremely tolerant to fire blight.

Geneva 30

(G 30)

This rootstock was developed at the Cornell University breeding program by Dr. Jim Cummings. It makes a tree similar in size to EMLA 7. It is more fireblight resistant than EMLA 7 and produces trees that are more precocious than trees grown on EMLA 7. Recommended for trial planting at this time.

Geneva® 11 (G 11)

A cross of M 26 x Robusta 5 hybrid, G 11 is similar in vigor to EMLA 26. Like ELMA 26 trees grown on G 11 should be supported. Trees of this variety are extremely precocious, productive and more resistant to wooly aphid tan EMLA 26. G 11 is also somewhat resistant to fireblight and collar rot. G 11 also resists suckering.

Malling 9

(M 9)

This is considered to be the full dwarf tree. M 9 should be planted on fertile well-drained soil and requires support. A tree on this root is about 30-35 percent in size compared to a standard tree. In our own orchards, we have had very early and heavy production from M 9 rooted trees. M 9 may not be as winter hardy as those on other dwarfing roots. It can be planted close in double rows.

Nic 29® (RN 29 cv.)

Nic 29® is a Malling 9 type rootstock. It usually exhibits a better root system than Malling 9. Of the various types of Malling 9, Nic 29®  exhibits stronger vigor, yet is still a full dwarf. Trees grown on this root require support. The rootstock is both precocious and productive, usually fruiting in second or third leaf. Fire blight susceptibility is similar to other M 9 strains. Recommended for high density plantings.